Friday, January 31, 2020
New Balance Case study Essay Good Management structure e. g. Van Rooyen the general manager Wide range of products across every sporting category Functional technological design in terms of fit. Foot widths have been incorporated in the design of the shoe. This distinguishes/ differentiates New Balance product from its competitors. Brand has been kept affordable in terms of price Inspired well-taken care of employees who are performance driven because of the culture of the company Is established in many countries and has quite a big global footprint Good relationship with retailers. They have been accommodated and close bonds have been formed with them. Good marketing techniques, focussing on strategies that the major competition have neglected OPPORTUNITIES (in order of the most lucrative) Nowadays people wear sneakers for leisure/fashion purposes and New Balance could target that market. New balance could establish other lines within their range for Leisure or even high end market, kids market etc. Target the soccer/ black market ( new balance has made little advancement in this sector) New balance was places as number one in the trail category. They should ride this wave; sponsor the person who won in that category. Create branded/ concept stores South Africa has a strong sporting culture that the company could capitalise on ( Netball, court, walking), New Balance needs to have more market share in these sectors Advancement in technology and innovation. New balance has the opportunity to update its products and come up with new innovations to keep up and to penetrate the market. Make headway into the online retailing sector. There is a growing level of health awareness in the public and more people are leading an active lifestyle. This has led to more sales of the running/sports gear. And New Balance has an opportunity to grow. Sports has become a source of entertainment and therefore there is more demand for it, and an opportunity to grow within the market In South Africa particularly there has been large growth in the middle income sector, and that is an opening/ gap market for the company to target. More product lines. WEAKNESSES Limited product line. New Balance has focused mainly on running. However, the market has been shifting to not only include serious athletes, but it now also caters to the more fashion-oriented crowd. This crowd tends to be from the younger generation, the part of the population that New Balance has so far not been focusing on. New Balance needs to expand into new product areas and remain competitive in the changing market. Manufacturing costs. With its competitors outsourcing most of their manufacturing to other countries such as China, Nike, Adidas and Reebok have been able to cut their manufacturing costs significantly. New Balance on the other hand manufactures its shoes in the USA. Has to order stock from abroad. New Balance falls behind its other major competitors, Nike, Adidas and Reebok, in the area of marketing. Unlike its competitors, New Balance does not undertake celebrity endorsements. This puts them at a disadvantage when it comes to brand building. This also causes the company to be at a disadvantage on gaining awareness on a global scale and they lose out on publicity from major global events. Most global brand names generate strong brand recognition through celebrity endorsements in sporting events (e. g. soccer and rugby world cups) that would give them the needed momentum to carry their brand name further into the global market. The fact that new Balance has multiple widths also adds to the cost of manufacturing Van RooyenÃ¢â¬â¢s statement of: Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢not wanting the shoe to be a giant, but to become known as betterÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢. Bigger is better, the words are synonymous with each other; there is no need to sacrifice the one to have the other. The company can be both bigger and better. THREATS The sportswear industry is growing and becoming more competitive so the will be new producers and entries in the market with new Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢aces up their sleevesÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢. More competition in the market Sales on the technical running market have been on the decline according to (exhibit 1) in the New Balance Case Study, and this is New BalancesÃ¢â¬â¢ stronghold. Becoming myopic and not scanning the periphery. Not seeing that there are gaps in the market and focussing mainly on running. Not considering fashion focussed brands such as Puma as competition. This is a myopic trait of assuming indispensability Summary Much of the strengths of New Balance lie in the quality of their product and the good relationships they have with their retailers/ distributers. Their weaknesses are in that they are too focussed on the functionality of product, whereas the market is constantly changing and they need to be evolving with the market. Opportunities lie in the diversification of the product and making it more contemporary. They also need to employ stronger marketing techniques. Question 2: Would you consider New Balance a niche player in the athletic footwear industry New balance is a niche player with regards to their marketing technique. They utilised niche marketing strategies that the bigger firms overlooked. 1. Van Rooyen chose to create awareness at smaller sports club levels e. g. life-saving clubs, rugby clubs and hockey clubs etc. Or doing in store promotions to create awareness about the shoes. These are clubs that the major competitors were not concentrating on, but rather focussing on big marathon races such as the Two Oceans and the Comrades. In store campaigns were a great way to connect with the customer personally. 2. Van Rooyen dedicated a big chunk of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s expenditure into the sponsoring of events. This gave the company a lot of exposure. These events ranged from the Total Sports ChallengeÃ¢â¬â¢s Knysna Marathon, Surf Ski Series and school events. They also targeted top schools in South Africa that are well known for their cricketing, netball. And through this New Balance was on everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s mouth. 3. Another way they utilised in-store promotions was to assemble a Fit Tracks Machine, which is a foot scanner that advises a person which shoe product and size a new runner would need. This is a strategy the major brands were not using and this gave New Balance an edge above them, and it also marketed the functionality of their product. 4. Corporate branding and clothing. This is a growing gap in the market that the big giants werenÃ¢â¬â¢t focussing on. The opposition targeted soccer teams while NB went for the Army, air force, Police force. 5. Advertisements in running magazines. Other brands had stopped putting adverts in running magazines as this was costly. New Balance saw a gap and advertised in every single issue of RunnerÃ¢â¬â¢s World Magazine. And this paid off to an extent that the competitors copied them and once more started advertising in athlete magazines. The above marketing strategies are typical concentrated (niche) target market strategies. Although the company did not suffer from limited resources, they chose this route because it was more effective and efficient for their brand. They had thorough knowledge of the market they were targeting (serious, technical sportsmen) and they used this knowledge to get their product into the market. Characteristics of niche targeting (pg. 11, Principles of Marketing Hand-outs): Strategic Factors Niche Targeting New Balance example Target Market One Narrowly defined consumer group Serious Athletes Distribution Carefully selected outlets. Few exclusive distribution New balance targeted independent retailers mostly ( big firms were not supplying these) and although they do supply big shops such as Edgars, Total Sports and such. The independent distributers make up a large portion of their share price Marketing Communication Specialised media e. g. specialised magazines The media strategy that New Balance chose to use was specialised in a sense that it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t mass media and all over the place. They rather targeted specific sectors they wanted to make themselves known in. Sectors that other major players had neglected. Price One price range tailored to the consumer group. The entry level price for New balance ranges from R399-R599 where as for the competitors it ranged from R399-R1500 Strategy emphasis Appeal to one specific consumer group via highly specialised marketing programme New BalanceÃ¢â¬â¢s appeal is to the serious athlete who prefers functionality over fashion. Their marketing programme (see numbered bullets above) was highly specialised and set them apart from competitors. Question 3: New BalanceÃ¢â¬â¢s approach to segmenting the market New BalanceÃ¢â¬â¢s market segmentation approach is that of a concentrated market strategy. New BalanceÃ¢â¬â¢s segmentation approach is Ã¢â¬Ëfunctionality over fashionÃ¢â¬â¢. Therefore stressing the functionality of the shoe and targeting the technical sportsman is how New Balance ( pg. 5, New Balance Case Study) has segmented his market. New Balance has chosen this approach because of their: a. Product range/variability. They offer mainly specialized technical running shoes for professional sportsmen. b. Market variability, the market has various sectors but they have decided to target the specific market of running. c. Competitors marketing strategies. Their competitors are focussed on the larger chunks of the South African sporting market e. g. soccer Question 4: New BalanceÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing mix Product New Balance offers technical running shoes for the serious athlete. They also have a wide range of products in every sporting category e. g. menÃ¢â¬â¢s footwear, trail walking, cross-training, court, childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s, soccer and athlesuire. Their product is differentiated from their competitors in that their shoes come in a form of multiple widths and lengths across all the product lines. In order to expand their product range and therefore have a larger customer base I would recommend New Balance: venture into the fashion/leisure market as there is a gap for them there create a line for the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s market in future, get into the soccer / black market as that is one of the most popular sports in the country and demographically forms a larger part of South African sports players have a high-end line for the more exclusive market which, pricewise will be higher than the entry level of 399-599 that they currently have. New Balance also has the opportunity to do more research and development on their product and come up with other innovative technical features for their shoes. They could come up with other breakthrough technologies that will make them market leaders in speciality sportswear. Branding In branding their product, New Balance has taken an Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢endorsed by no-one approach, which I believe works well with what the company stands for. There are pitfalls to having a celebrity or well-known sports star as the face of a brand as that places the brandÃ¢â¬â¢s image in the hands of one individual. A problem that has affected New BalanceÃ¢â¬â¢s competition Nike in the recent months. New Balance has therefore kept their image of function over fashion and will be known for that . The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s focus in on quality and performance which will therefore sell the brand. On the other hand it is good to note that the Michael Jordan and Nike collaboration brought about the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s bestselling sneaker to date, and therefore meaningful endorsements can push the global image of the brand and give the brand and edge. New Balance could use the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s best trail runner as the face of their trail category since they are the leading brand in that category. Price New BalancesÃ¢â¬â¢ aim is to attain 38% to 40% margins and they therefore have kept the brand affordable at the price of R399-R599 for a new balance entry level shoe(pg. 3 New Balance Case study) . Considering that entry level shoes form the bulk of New BalanceÃ¢â¬â¢s sales another strategy might be need. As mentioned earlier a new high-end line that is for the more exclusive target market can be made with the entry level shoes starting at a much higher price. The customers would be the kind of customers who associate price with quality, and functionality and prestige. The middle income market is growing in South Africa, and therefore with rising incomes people can afford more high-end products. Place New BalanceÃ¢â¬â¢s retail strategy involved targeting independent sports stores that had been neglected by the their major competitors, these stores ended up making 36% of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s business while the bigger stores e. g. EdgarÃ¢â¬â¢s, Total sports etc. made the rest of the share. You could say that even their distribution technique was that of a Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢nicheÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ type of strategy, since they targeted what was bypassed by their major competitors. Opening braded shops in the weak areas like Namibia and Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢keeping a low profileÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢, is not a great move. I would recommend that new balance open branded shops in the cities as well. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s where most activity and population density is, and also where the brand itself can showcase all the aspects of their brand and products that retailers cannot stock. They may be afraid of competing with their retailers, but I believe there is enough room for the retailers and New Balance concept stores to both thrive in the market without cancelling each other out. New Balance can also establish an online retailing system where consumers can order products directly online. Promotion Publicity New Balance has a good form of a public relations strategy to get the name of New Balance out there to the customers. . This infact, formed a big part of their strategy as they would sponsor events, and this made up a big part of their expenditure. This gave them a lot exposure through print media and television e. g. total sports challenge, school sporting events. Advertising New balance created awareness in smaller sports clubs and taking part bin promotions at shops. They also used direct marketing where they kept databases of their customerÃ¢â¬â¢s e. g runners in marathons and retailers and directly marketing their new products and events to them. They also advertised in magazines, and went the co-branding route to get their name out there. CHECK EXHIBITS AT THE BACK FOR RECOMMENDATIONS!!! Personal selling The instore campigns wre a graet way to establish a more personal relation ship and connect with the customer.
Thursday, January 23, 2020
Caroline in A Thousand Acres It is really striking that a novel in which bodies of people and bodies of land (and, intertextually, bodies of text) are so central, creates a character that is so distinctly "unbodied": Caroline Cook. Nevertheless, it is in keeping with traditional and patriarchal interpretations of Cordelia's character in King Lear: a paragon of purity and transcendence. While her sisters' bodies are thoroughly described and, not least, imbued with meaning, Caroline is always described in terms of her business-like " 'take-me-seriously-or-I'll-sue-you' demeanor" (13), her expensive clothes and assertive actions. She is in fact described like a man, a trait first exposed when she as a child says that she's not going to be a farmwife when she grows up, but a farmer (61), then when Ginny has her moment of insight toward the end, and suddenly sees everybody clearly for what they are: "her eyes darting from one face to another, calculating, always calculating. [...] She climbs into Daddy's lap, and her gaze slithers around the room, looking to see if we have noticed how he prefers her." (306) She is still unbodied here, described in terms of eyes and mind. This is metaphorically a male domain; in Western thought, the gaze is traditionally male, categorizing external reality in order to have power over it by utilizing reason. Nor, of course, is it incidental that Caroline is the educated one, emphasizing further her belonging to the "male" realm. Whereas Rose's "man-ness" is based on a destructive rage, Caroline's is based on cold calculation, therefore she is more successful playing by the rules of the patriarchy. It must be remembered, however, that she is able to use the system because she has been shielded from its negative side. Ginny and Rose have always protected her from Larry's anger, incest, and complete suppression of their own identities. While Larry signifies so many things to the elder sisters, not least the horribly intimate -familiar- memories of incest, Caroline can say about him that he looks "as familiar as a father should look, no more, no less". In this, as Ginny replies, she is lucky. (362) Of course, saying that Caroline is like a man signals complicity with gender-stereotypes. She is a positive character in that she is assertive and self-contained, as when she criticizes Larry's idea to divide the farm.
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
The crack widths predicted by the different codes have been calculated for a range of varying parameters: Varying tension reinforcement stress (Figure 9) Varying cover (Figure 10) Varying bar spacing with constant reinforcement area and stress. (Figure 1 1) Varying bar spacing with constant reinforcement area and maximum stress to AS 3600. Figure 12) BBS 5400 results have been plotted using a Ms / MGM ratio of 0. 1 and 1. All results have used long term values where available. Larger versions of these graphs may be found on the Powering presentation associated with this paper. The following observations can be made from the graph results: The BBS 5400 results using the two different load ratios gave substantially different results, with the higher ratio giving increased crack widths. The BBS 8110 results were either approximately centrally placed between the two BBS 5400 results, or close to the lower values.The Recoded 2 results were usually reasonably close to the mean of the other results. The CUBE-Flip-1990 results were consistently the lowest for high steel stresses and high concrete cover values. Results with varying spacing were close to Recoded 2 results. The IAC 318 results were consistently the highest, being close to and slightly higher than the upper bound BBS 5400 values. All crack widths increased approximately linearly with increasing steel stress Crack widths increased with increasing cover, with Recoded 2 reaching a constant value at 70 mm cover, and the CUBE-PIP code at 35 mm cover.The other codes continued to increase more than linearly up to 100 mm cover. All codes predicted increasing crack width with increasing bar spacing and constant reinforcement area steel stress. Figure 9: Varying tension reinforcement stress Figure 10: Varying cover Figure 11: Varying bar spacing with constant reinforcement area and stress Figure 12: Varying bar spacing with constant reinforcement area and maximum stress to AS 3600.When the steel stress was adjusted to the maximum allowable under AS 3600 (I. E. Reduced for increasing bar spacing and increasing bar diameter) the predicted crack widths were reasonably uniform in the spacing range 50 to 200 mm, then tended to reduce with greater spacing. DEFLECTION The main differences in approach to the calculation of deflections are summarized low: Australian and American codes are based on the Brannon equation, using a uniform average effective stiffness value.Australian codes allow for loss of tension stiffening through a reduction of the cracking moment related to the free concrete shrinkage. Allowance for shrinkage curvature in the Australian codes is simplified and will underestimate curvature in symmetrically reinforced sections. British codes allow only a low tension value for cracked sections, which is further reduced for long term deflections European codes adopt an intermediate approach for cracked sections, tit an allowance for loss of tension stiffening.British and European code prov isions for shrinkage curvature are essentially the same Effective stiffness, calculated according to AS 3600, Recoded 2, BBS 5400, and BBS 8110, and with no tension stiffening, is plotted against bending moment for the same concrete section used in the crack width analysis. Figure 13 shows results with no shrinkage, and Figure 14 with a shrinkage of 300 Microscopic. RESEARCH ABOUT THE METHODS USED IN DIFFERENCE CONCRETE STANDARDS AS 3600 limits the maximum reinforcement stress under serviceability loads to a axiom value dependent on either the bar diameter or the bar spacing, whichever gives the greater stress.AS 5100 has the same limits, with an additional requirement to check for lower limits under permanent loads for elements in exposure classifications 82, C or U. Recoded 2 limits stresses in essentially the same way, except that the limits are presented as maximum bar spacing or diameter for a specified stress, rather than vice versa. The Recoded 2 limits are related to 3 diffe rent values of nominal crack width, 0. 2 mm, 0. 3 mm or 0. 4 mm, under pseudo-static loading. The applicable crack Edith depends on the exposure classification and type of member.Code Provisions for Crack Width Limits As well as stress limits, Recoded 2 has detailed provisions for the calculation of design crack widths, which are summarized below: The basic formula for crack width: crack spacing x (mean steel strain Ã¢â¬â mean concrete strain) makes no allowance for variation in crack width between the level of the reinforcement and the surface of the concrete, however the crack spacing is mainly related to the cover depth, and the crack width is directly proportional to crack spacing, so the depth of cover has a significant effect on crack widths.The expression for Seems Ã¢â¬â ECMA limits the effect of tension stiffening to 40% of the steel strain. For long term effects the tension stiffening coefficient is reduced by 1/3, from 0. 6 to 0. 4. The British concrete design codes specify a design crack width at the surface of the concrete as follows: The basic approach is similar to Recoded 2, except that the crack width is projected from the reinforcement level to the concrete surface. The main differences between BBS 5400 and BBS 8110 are: BBS 5400 includes a factor to reduce the effect of tension stiffening, depending on the ratio of live load moment to dead load moment (Ms / MGM).The effect of this is to reduce tension stiffening effects to zero for a load ratio of 1 or greater. The tension stiffening coefficients are differently formulated. The IAC requirements are based on stress limits derived from the Surgery-Lutz equation: The IAC 318 equation makes no allowance for tension stiffening, and predicts crack width at the upper bound of those studied in this paper. Results are usually similar to those from the BBS 5400 equation using a Ms / MGM ratio of 1 .AS 3600, AS 5100, and IAC 318 AS 3600 and AS 5100 provisions for Ã¢â¬Å"simplifiedÃ¢â¬ calculati on of deflections are identical other than a typographical error in AS 5100), and are both based on the Ã¢â¬Å"BrannonÃ¢â¬ equation, which is also used in IAC 318. The equation in IAC 318 is differently formulated, but will give identical results for the same cracking moment and section stiffness values. The AS 3600 version of the equation is shown below: left is calculated for the maximum moment section, and applied along the full length of the member being analyses.The calculation of the cracking moment in the Australian codes (but not IAC 318) includes an allowance for the shrinkage induced tensile stress in the unchecked section, which contributes to loss of tension stiffening: AS 3600 and AS 5100 provide a factor KC , applied to the calculated deflection, to account for the additional deflection due creep and shrinkage: KC = [2- 1. 2(ASS / East)] Note that for a symmetrically reinforced section KC reduces to the minimum value of 0. , being the effect of creep deflection alon e. 6. 4. 2 OBSESS,BBS 8110 Deflections in BBS 5400 and BBS 8110 are calculated from integration of section curvatures. The cracking moment and curvature of cracked sections allows for a short term concrete tensile stress of 1 Amp, reducing to 0. 5 Amp in the long term. Shrinkage curvatures in BBS 8110 are determined from the free shrinkage strain, and the first moment of area of the reinforcement about the cracked or unchecked section, as appropriate.BBS 5400 uses a similar approach, but tabulates factors based on the compression and tension reinforcement ratios. 6. 4. 3 Recoded 2 and CUBE-PIP 1990 (MAC 90) The European codes also provide for calculation of deflections by integration of section curvatures, but provide a different expression for the stiffness of cracked sections: Shrinkage curvatures are assessed using a similar method to that given in BBS 8110:
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 913 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2019/07/30 Category Society Essay Level High school Tags: Corporal Punishment Essay Did you like this example? School corporal punishment refers to causing deliberate pain or discomfort in response to undesired behaviour by students in schools. It often involves striking the student either across the buttocks or on the hands, with an implement such as a rattan cane, wooden paddle, slipper, leather strap or wooden yardstick. Less commonly, it could also include spanking or smacking the student with the open hand. Advocates of school corporal punishment argue that it provides an immediate response to indiscipline and that the student is quickly back in the classroom learning, as opposed to suspension from school. Opponents, including a number of medical and psychological societies, along with human-rights groups, argue that physical punishment is ineffective in the long term, interferes with learning, leads to antisocial behaviour as well as various forms of mental distress, and is a form of violence that breaches the rights of children. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "School Corporal Punishment" essay for you Create order Corporal Punishment as a Means for Motivation Ascham (2005) said that punishment should not be used to bring about learning but it should be replaced with praise and encouragement. His main aim criticism is based on the uselessness of corporal punishment as an aid to efficient learning. He further said that the only thing one does successfully is to make the child hate what one is trying to teach. Ascham supported the above statement by saying that a relationship between a teacher and a student is one very important aspect if the student is to seek help when in difficult. On top of that he continued to say let your scholar be never afraid, to ask you any doubt, but use discretely the best allurements you can to encourage him to fame and the best allurement to learning is love which is better than fear while gentleness is better than beating (Ascham, 2005). Corporal Punishment as a Form Abuse In a series of studies, Straus and his colleagues have linked physical punishment to substance abuse and criminal activities, low economic achievement, and depression and thought of suicide (Straus in press). Despite these negative outcomes, powerful cultural norms make attitudes towards corporal punishment slow to change. Individuals have developed a host of reasons, or myths, unsupported by the evidence, to justify the hitting of children (Straus). According to Anonymous (2010) in the Times of Swaziland, due to being exposed to corporal punishment, some students tend to leave school premises early before school closes. Some refuse to go home after school and when quizzed as to why they are not going home they just open a can of worms when they reveal that they are being beaten everyday as they come to school with new and fresh bruises and scars. The Times continued to say that it is a pity that the students are exposed to corporal punishment when they are supposed to be exposed to love, protection, respect, and care as some of these punishments are uncalled for following one grandmother who was exposing her granddaughter to corporal punishment every day for no apparent reason, (Times of Swaziland, 2010c). Effects of Corporal Punishment According to Robison (2009), corporal punishment has some bad effects on the students. These include depression, sadness, scoring low in IQ tests, the child begins to have functional negative effects towards other children who score high in IQ tests, and children who are exposed to corporal punishment also exhibit anti-social behaviours. Some desire to revenge when others think of suicide. Classroom management Classroom management is a term used by teachers to describe the process of ensuring that classroom lessons run smoothly despite disruptive behaviour by students. It also implies the prevention of disruptive behaviour. It is possibly the most difficult aspect of teaching for many teachers; indeed experiencing problems in this area causes some to leave teaching altogether. Classroom management is crucial in classrooms because it supports the proper execution of curriculum development, developing best teaching practices, and putting them into action. Classroom management can be explained as the actions and directions that teachers use to create a successful learning environment; indeed, having a positive impact on students achieving given learning requirements and goals (Soheili, Alizadeh, Murphy, Bajestani, Ferguson and Dreikurs). In an effort to ensure all students receive the best education it would seem beneficial for educator programs to spend more time and effort in ensuring educators and instructors are well versed in classroom management. Teachers do not focus on learning classroom management, because higher education programs do not put an emphasis on the teacher attaining classroom management; indeed, the focus is on creating a conducive learning atmosphere for the student (Eisenman, Edwards, and Cushman ). These tools enable teachers to have the resources available to properly and successfully educate upcoming generations, and ensure future successes as a nation. According to Moskowitz Hayman (1976), once a teacher loses control of their classroom, it becomes increasingly more difficult for them to regain that control. Research from Berliner (1988) and Brophy Good (1986) shows that the time a teacher has to take to correct misbehavior caused by poor classroom management skills results in a lower rate of academic engagement in the classroom. From the students perspective, effective classroom management involves clear communication of behavioural and academic expectations as well as a cooperative learning environment. Douglas Brooks (1985) reports seminal research on the first day of school activity selection and sequence of novice middle school teachers compared with experienced, successful classroom managers. Brooks reports that effective classroom managers organized their activities on the first day of school consistent with the emerging needs of the students.