Sunday, December 29, 2019

Genes and Their Control Over Humans Essay - 810 Words

Genes and Their Control Over Humans They (genes) are in you and me; they created us, body and mind This statement by Richard Dawkins poses the question of how much and in what way our genes control us, whether they are responsible for our hereditary features only, or for all behavior and environmental aspects of our persona. A reductionist view implies that only specific tasks are carried out by the genes.We know that most genes synthesize for proteins, these being chains of sub units, or amino acids (a.a) which in turn form the bases of RNA ( ribonucleic acid) to determine the sequence of the a.a by means of the genetic code. This process dictates whether the protein made will†¦show more content†¦It was at this point that Gregor Mendels work, on the theory of heredity, was revived. This formed the basis of all future genetic studies. Mendel had suggested that an individuals characteristics were determined by inherited factors. This finding was proved to be correct when later microscopes were able to show proof that these factors, known now alleles, could be related to the actions of the chromosomes, the carriers of genes, during meiosis. Thus, the theory that genes were the basis of all biological characteristics of inheritance became accepted. Both Mendel and Darwin have presented their theories from a reductionist viewpoint. Dawkins statement from The Selfish Gene would appear to give an holistic viewpoint by including the psychological, as well as biological, aspect of gene control. 2 To decide whether this is the viewpoint being put forward it is necessary to investigate known causes of gene manipulation. This would encompass every factor of nature and nurture, from genetic inheritance; be it eye or hair colour, or diseases such as cystic fibrosis, Huntingtons chorea or haemophilia. Cystic fibrosis is an example of an autosomal recessive alteration within a single gene, this gene has been identified as lying on chromosome number 7. Huntingtons chorea meanwhile, although again arising from anShow MoreRelatedGene Expression : The Consequences Of Human DNA And Human Genes1345 Words   |  6 Pages Human DNA is found in 23 pairs of chromosomes and within these chromosomes are sections of DNA called genes. Genes make up the physical traits inherited and expressed from mom and dad. When the DNA found within these genes provides genetic instructions to encode proteins or other molecules, this is called gene expression. Gene expression is the process by which genetic information stored in a gene dictates a cells function. This process is essential as regulatory proteins control the rate of geneRead MoreModulating Gene Expression with Multiple Intermediate Steps1514 Words   |  6 PagesGene expression can be modulated by multiple intermediate steps, including transcription, post-transcriptional modifications, RNA splicing, translation, and post-translational modifications; transcription being the first step and a key mechanism for regulating gene expression. Transcriptional control is mediated through promoters and regulatory elements, which are all essential for spatiotemporally correct gene expression. Genome organization has been undoubtedly linked with regulation of gene expressionRead MoreThe Role Dna Serves For The Human Cell1267 Words   |  6 Pages The Role DNA Serves For The Human Cell Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) accommodates a variety of purposes, including data storage and replication, in the human cell and in the cells of many other organisms. DNA in a human cell is primarily responsible for storing genetic information that is utilized to control virtually every aspect of cellular expression. This genetic information is passed down from parents to progeny, resulting in progeny with some genetic traits of each parent. DNA is withal replicatedRead MoreGene Therapy : An Experimental Technique1415 Words   |  6 Pagestechnology of gene therapy may be able to help. Gene therapy is an experimental technique that involves altering genes within the body’s cells in order to prevent genetic disorders (Mayo Clinic, 2015). The objective of gene therapy is to edit a defective gene sequence in situ to achieve complete reversion of a disease phenotype for the lifetime of the patient (British Journal of Haematology, 2009). Genes control DNA, the code that controls much of the body’s function and form. Genes that are mutatedRead MoreThe Question On Everyone s Mind Is A Genome?862 Words   |  4 Pagesorganism.† The genomes between us and other human beings are 99.9% identical, yet we are completely different in appearance. The average human being always hears that they are unique in their own way. How is that possible, when we are identical to everyone else genetically? Simple, although our genome is identical, our traits are different from every human being. Diversity exists in human traits since a genome depends on the expression of genes, thus these genes transcribe in different ways dependingRead MoreThe Need for Policy Makers to Regulate Human Genetic Engineering1255 Words   |  6 PagesHuman genetic engineering (HGE), a prevalent topic for scientists in research, is the process of manipulating genes in the human genome. Potentially, scientists can use the process of HGE to alter many biological and psychological human traits by gene modification. Currently, however, there is a large deficiency in information regarding HGE and its effects to the human body; creating a need for scientists to conduct more research and tests. Because of the many unknowns involving HGE it is necessaryRead MoreEssay on The Evolution of Speech1080 Words   |  5 Pagesearliest hominins to one of our well known ancestors, the homo erectus. There are differences between bone structure and hard tissues of living modern humans to those of chimpanzees and bonobos (Boer, 2005). Speech is a unique trait that only humans so far have de veloped. This trait was most likely a prerequisite for the development of culture within human society. Throughout society, it has been shown that speech can vary from being extremely complex to astonishingly simple. Finally, the way infantsRead MoreCloning Of C. Elegans907 Words   |  4 Pageslin-4, a gene known to control the timing of C. elegans larval development does not code for a protein but instead produces a pair of small RNAs [1, 2]. For seven years after the discovery of the lin-4 RNA there was no evidence for lin-4-like RNAs beyond nematodes. This all changed upon the discovery that let-7, another gene in the C. elegans encoded a second ~22 nt regulatory RNA. Homologs of the let-7 gene were soon identified in human and fly genomes, and let-7 RNA itself was detected in human, DrosophilaRead MorePathway Of Igf-1 Pathway784 Words   |  4 PagesThe insulin/IGF-1 pathway which plays a major role in the control of lifespan and aging in animals and humans includes a lot of genes if any gene transformed with single mutation the IGF-1 pathway can increase lifespan and cause human longevity to remain active and youthful much longer than normal. As in different species, yeast, nematodes and fruit flies there are genes homologous with mammalian genes that control in IGF-1 pathway and mutation in any one of them may be affected on lifespan (TatarRead MoreThe Potential Impacts Of Genetically Modified Organisms Essay1512 Words   |  7 Pagesissues that modified organisms pose on human health. Since food sovereignty is associated with allowing for individuals to have control over the way food is produced and consumed, agriculture supporting modified organisms does not allow for this because there are potential impacts that transgenic crops may cause a resistance to antibiotics. When food is genetically modified, genes are added into these crops and antibiotic resistance gene markers are among these genes that are added. (Altieri , 2004).

Saturday, December 21, 2019

Poverty Of Extreme Poverty And Hunger - 1606 Words

MDG Paper ( 1. Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger (â€Å"Extreme poverty rates have been cut by more than half since 1990†) a. Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than $1.25 a day i. Goal was met by 2010 ii. Since 1990, over 1 billion people have been lifted from extreme poverty iii. In 1990, almost 50% of people in developing nations lived on less than $1.25 a day. In 2015, it is only 14%. b. Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people i. In 2015, 200 million workers world-wide lived below the poverty line ($1.25 a day) ii. â€Å"The â€Å"employment-to-population ratio†, or the proportion of the working-age population that is employed, has fallen from 62% in 1991 to 60% in 2015.† iii. Of young women and men aged 15-24, only forty percent are employed in 2015, whereas fifty percent were employed in 1991. c. Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger i. â€Å"The proportion of undernourished people in the developing regions has fallen by almost half since 1990.† 2. Achieve Universal Primary Education (â€Å"Enrolment in primary education in developing regions has reached 91%†) a. Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling. i. For primary education in developing nations, enrollment increased from 83% in 2000 to 91% in 2015. ii. Of primary school age children, 57 million were out of school inShow MoreRelatedThe Millennium Development Goals : Eradicate Extreme Hunger And Poverty1710 Words   |  7 Pagesforefront of the project. The effectiveness of many intergovernmental organizations and nongovernmental organizations on these countries were set to be analyzed in 2015. The eight major goals presented at the Millennium Summit were: Eradicate Extreme Hunger and Poverty, Achieve Universal Primary Education, Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women, Reduce Child Mortality, Improve Maternal Health, Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other diseases, Ensure Environmental Sustainability, and to Develop a Global PartnershipRead MoreObjectives Of The Millennium Development Goals1148 Words   |  5 Pagesachieve the goals that are to reduce poverty, focus on health, improved education, and the protection of environmen t. Also, there are 8 goals that have specific targets and dates for achieving those targets. In this essay, the first development goal, ‘To eradicate extreme poverty and hungry’ is going to be discussed and evaluate this economic issue in Eastern Asia. Eastern Asia has been at the center of ‘economic miracle’ due to fast economy development, poverty in the region has been reduced by aboutRead MoreBangladesh Is On The Right Track1233 Words   |  5 PagesSystems – Section H October 16, 2015 Bangladesh is on The Right Track Bangladesh, the eight most populated country in the world has been plagued by poverty for a long time. In the year 2000, the United Nations created the Millennium Development Goals, the purpose was to decrease extreme poverty by 2015. Thus, when Goal 1; eradicating extreme poverty and hunger was included in the project, Bangladesh was targeted as the country is overpopulated and has a high rate of unemployment. A considerable numberRead MoreExtreme Poverty : Chronic Poverty Essay1613 Words   |  7 PagesExtreme Poverty Nathan Larson Northcentral Technical College â€Æ' Introduction ïÆ'Ëœ What is Extreme Poverty? What if you had a chance to save a person? Most would react quickly if given the chance to save another life especially a child’s life. In fact, it is estimated that 16,000 under the age of five die every day due to causes associated with extreme poverty. That is nearly 750 children an hour. The causes of the deaths include insufficient nutrition, lack of access to clean water, no health careRead MoreThe Millennium Development Goals ( Mdgs )1522 Words   |  7 PagesThe eight targeted areas which are poverty, education, gender equality, child mortality, maternal health, disease, the environment and global partnership place attention on areas that will help the improvement and betterment of underdeveloped countries. MDG goals and objectives are clear and concise with a development plan in place to make changes with underdeveloped and middle-income countries. Equally are all eight of the goals, but focusing on poverty, hunger and child mortality, will bringRead MoreThe Millennium Development Goals ( Mdgs ) Essay1659 Words   |  7 Pageseight targeted areas which are poverty, education, gender equality, child mortality, maternal health, disease, the environment and global partnership place attention on areas that will help the improvement and betterment of underdeveloped countries. MDGs goals and objectives are clear and concise with a development plan in place to make changes with underdeveloped and middle-income countries. Equally are all eight of the goals, but focusing on poverty, hunger and child mortality, will bringRead MoreThe Main Cause Of Famine On Africa1674 Words   |  7 Pages The main cause of famine in Africa is Natural hazards. Africa has been associated with famine for a long period of time and is still the case today.Research has shown that more than 90 million people living in Africa have been affected by hunger and are malnourished.This raises a question of what the root causes of this problem could be, considering that this has been an ongoing problem. Some people suggest that the main cause of famine in Africa over the years and is still the case todayRead MoreObjectives Of The Millennium Development Goals1478 Words   |  6 Pagesfor addressing extreme poverty in many dimensions. The Millennium development Goals has drawn attention to 191 countries with eight international development goals in order to cutting the amount of extreme poverty worldwide in half within a set of time on 2015. The MDGs contain the goals of extreme poverty in income, education, gender equality, hunger, disease and environmental sustainability. The eight goals are focus on different section the eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universalRead MoreThe Anti Poverty Programs And Activities Of International Non Governmental Organizations840 Words   |  4 Pagesinto the following research question: did the anti-poverty programs and activities of international non-governmental organizations (INGOs) contribute in achieving Goal 1 of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which is to eradicate extreme hunger and poverty, in some South Asian and sub-Saharan African nations? Since NGOs play an active role in eradicating extreme poverty at the local and international level, I chose to look into the anti-poverty programs and strategies implemented by local andRead MoreHaiti : The Starving Country870 Words   |  4 Pagesirreversibly short for their age.†(â€Å"Hunger†) This staggering statistic is due to one of the world’s biggest problems, hunger. Hunger is a problem that many developing countries face, one of the biggest victims to hunger is the small Caribbean country of Hait i. Hunger in Haiti affects the entire country, from the rural countrysides to the major cities. Though hunger is already a big issue for Haiti, it has gotten worse in the past decade due to the extreme poverty, heavy storms, and natural disasters

Friday, December 13, 2019

Business Law Memo Free Essays

M E M O R A N D U M TO:Client FROM: DATE:November 16, 2011 RE:Suggestive Business Entity for Cure of Cancer Question Presented What business entity would be best suited in order to create the enterprise for the client’s scientific cure of cancer, while keeping his main interests in mind: to get assistance in running the business portion of the enterprise, while limiting his personal liability; and providing investors with the most profit possible while limiting the scope of the amount of how many people that will eventually be involved? Brief Answer A C Corporation will likely suit the needs of the clients’ interest in creating his business enterprise of creating the cure for cancer. Facts Based on the information provided by the client, he wants to manage the scientific aspect of the business and hire business professionals to run the enterprise and raise additional funds. In addition, he wants to limit his liability in the enterprise and wants to limit the scope of how many investors would be involved. We will write a custom essay sample on Business Law Memo or any similar topic only for you Order Now Discussion Based on my interpretation of the clients’ interest, he wants to hire another business professional to handle the business side. Because of this, C Corporation would be most beneficial. If the client brought on his main investors as limited partners and then they ended up making significant management decisions while he developed the science, they would be treated as general partners for liability reasons. Also, the client did not say exactly that he did not want investors to be liable, only limit the scope of how many people would be involved, he did say that he wanted to limit his personal liability. Therefore, C Corporation would be most beneficial because the client and his investors would have limited liability. In the alternative, an LLC could be a possibility if the client wanted to take part in running the business aspect of the enterprise, then this would be the best. The client and the business professional that is hired would be partners running the business aspects of the enterprise. The client would also be responsible for science aspect of the enterprise. The investor he brought on would become limited partners who would only contribute assets and would not participate in the management of the business. Therefore this would keep their personal assets protected from the business just in case the company fails. Although this would protect the investors it would leave the client completely liable for any wrongful actions the investors make can. If the client did not want the investors to be held liable at all then in fact, a Limited Partnership would be best because the client would become the general partner. Therefore, he would be the one to run the business aspect of the enterprise. On top of running the enterprise he would also be in charge of the science aspect of the enterprise also. The investors he has now and in the future would become limited partners who would only contribute assets and would not participate in the management of the business. This would keep their personal assets protected from the business just in case the company fails. Although this would protect the investors it would leave the client completely liable for the partnership debt. It would also leave the client responsible for the business aspect of the company which he previously stated he was not interested in handling. â€Å"We could get around this by suggesting they develop a LLP as the general partner. †(Loafman, lecture) Conclusion Although, Limited Liability Company and Limited Partnership have positive aspects, C Corporation would still be most beneficial to our client because he just wants to be the scientist and does not want to be the one to manage the business. He wants to hire some business professional to run the enterprise and limit his liability. How to cite Business Law Memo, Essays

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Culture as Context for Communication Business Communication

Question: Discuss about the Culture as Context for Communication for Business Communication. Answer: Introduction: Before knowing the importance and effects of culture as a context for communication, one must first understand the meaning of the terms culture and communication. Culture can be defined as a set of learned patterns and behaviors shared by a particular group of people. And communication is a process of imparting information from a group of people to another group or person. The process of communication across different cultures is challenging. Culture plays a very dominant role in effecting the ways and methods of communication. The relationship between culture and communication is very deep as well as critical (Lami, 2014). Communication influences the formal or informal business propositions and the negotiation process. It forms the base of any business dealing or any kind of involvement going on between two parties. The process of communication is basically determining a common or mutual ground of understanding and is an influential process. While culture is a ruling factor that is important to be considered in the communication procedure (Cai, 2000). Being individuals, each one of us have a separate identity and different set of behaviors and attitudes. No two persons howsoever belonging to the same culture can behave in an identical manner in a particular situation. However, culture can be classified as a clue which helps in understanding and determining the behavior of members of a specific group or society. There are different communication tools that assists in understanding different cultures. One of the essential tools of communication is High-context and Low-context (Koracà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ Kakabadse, Kouzmin, Koracà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ Kakabadse, Savery, 2001). This theory is proposed by famous anthropologist Edward T. Hall. The areas that come under high-context culture includes Middle East, South America, Africa, Central Europe, Asia, etc. In high-context communication culture, choice of words play a major role, and it depends very much on the use of communication which is non-verbal. The use of high-context communication leaves most part of the message unspecified as it relies on the intuition and feelings. The actual meaning of the message in this context is to be understood by the non-verbal cues, and the interpretation of the words that are not being actually said but conveys its meaning. That means a complex message can effectively be communicated to an in-group with the use of a few words, but it affects a little to an out-group and will not be reliably and efficiently understood by the outsiders. It is polychronic in nature and implies implicit and indirect messages and more emphasis is given to relationships (Croucher et al., 2012). While in low-context communication culture, the nature of communication is much more monochronic and explicit. Less emphasis is to be given to the value of words as it refers to the simple and clear messages which create no distinction for In-groups and Out-groups. The messages in low-context should be communicated in a way that it forms the exact meaning of what the com municator meant to express. This process highly relies on the written form of communication and consider facts, logics, and evidence. Relationships are of less importance and schedules are of high importance in low-context. While solving a problem, first the identification of all the facts and evidence happens and then the process of evaluation takes place, after which a decision has been made. This does not involve any kind of intuitions and feelings into it. Communicators need to be straight forward, logical, and should be clear in determining the action and what is actually said. He/she should be efficient in properly conveying the meaning of the message. The areas of low-context culture include most part of North America and Western Europe (Wang, 2009). The second important dimension is individualism and communitarianism that affects the culture based communication. A number of people in a group together form a community, and their primary identity is most commonly determined as a member of the specific group. This is called communitarianism while individualism is a separate personal identity of an individual. Now, the communication is highly based on the factor as to which type of group is being targeted (Batts, Breslin, Winter, 2012). There are many cultural influences on the context of the message and affects communication simultaneously, and those includes facial expressions, body language, relationship with one another, use of codes and symbols for the purpose of communication, etc. It also depends upon the structure of the various cultures as some cultures view it as a sequential thing which means that they provide their complete importance to an agenda at a time and follow a sequential process, and in which projects are line d up one after another. On contrary, some cultures follow a synchronic pattern in which they interrelate the flow of time period i.e. the past, present, and the future. This point of view influences the organizations approach to strategic thinking, the long-term planning concepts, investments, and deadlines. The effects of cross-cultural communication very much adhere to the perceptions of different individuals as how they perceive the specific information communicated to them, and also on the choice of the communication preferences of the sender. Once the information is being communicated, the receiver perceives it according to his/her own preferences and based on that he/she responds (St. Amant, 2016). With regard to communication, it is necessary to note that what is effective and appropriate for one culture may stand ineffective and wrong for another culture as each and every culture is so different and has its own rules and standards. The whole world is culturally diverse so, i n this whole process, communication strategy plays a significant role, and it makes it evident that the understanding and knowledge of cultures is quite important while communicating to them. It provides a set of assumptions in the mind of the sender and a better understanding of how the person or the group will react if information is conveyed to them and help them to know how to communicate in an efficient manner so that it avoids conflict or any kind of violence. To improve the cross-cultural communication, message, and language clarity should be importantly considered and delivery style should be enhanced, and it is also very essential to minimize the breakdowns in the process of communication so that the message conveys exactly what it means and does not leave any scope for misinterpretation. Hence, the need for studying the various elements of a culture and cultural influences in the context of communication is must and of utmost importance (Wurtz, 2005). Conclusion: Therefore, from the above study, it became clear that understanding of various cultures with respect to communication is influential. It is significant for the one to know and have an effective understanding of different cultures and contexts that help in influencing the communication strategy to a varied level and on the other hand, have an effect on its outcome. Effective cross-cultural communication can only be enabled when it is given an appropriate context and structure. In todays global world, when the countries are so much linked and interconnected, and the methods of communication are so instant and fast, there is not a single approach for communicating, but the success of communication depends on the understanding of the cross-cultural differences (Woolf, 2005). The relationship between culture and communication is complex as culture influences communication, and thus, the process is being enacted and reinforced. And in this way, its outcome has been affected, and the result s are produced so, to obtain effective communication, study and knowledge of large political, social, and historical environment are necessary and play a key role in managing communication (Cheng, 2010). References Batts, S., Breslin, J., Winter, S. (2012). Communication, Culture and Context: Best Practice for Working Internationally. Legal Information Management, 12(04), 278-283.Cai, A. (2000). Culture in the context of intercultural negotiation. Individualism-collectivism and paths to integrative agreements. Human Communication Research, 26(4), 591-617.Cheng, L. (2010). International Association for Intercultural Communication Studies: Culture, Communication and Adaptation in Global Context. Asian Englishes, 13(1), 88-93.Croucher, S., Bruno, A., McGrath, P., Adams, C., McGahan, C., Suits, A., Huckins, A. (2012). Conflict Styles and HighLow Context Cultures: A Cross-Cultural Extension. Communication Research Reports, 29(1), 64-73.Koracà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ Kakabadse, N., Kouzmin, A., Koracà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ Kakabadse, A., Savery, L. (2001). Lowà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  and highà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ context communication patterns: towards mapping crossà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ cultural encounters. Cross Cultural Management,8(2), 3-24.Lami, R. (2014). Influences of Cultural Identity on Communication. Social Sciences, 3(1), 1.St. Amant, K. (2016). Introduction to the special issue: Cultural considerations for communication design. Commun. Des. Q. Rev, 4(1), 6-22.Wang, J. (2009). A Cross-cultural Study of Daily Communication between Chinese and American-- From the Perspective of High Context and Low Context. Asian Social Science, 4(10).Woolf, L. (2005). Culture, Communication, and Context. Psyccritiques, 50(51).Wurtz, E. (2005). Intercultural Communication on Web sites: A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Web sites from High-Context Cultures and Low-Context Cultures. Journal Of Computer-Mediated Communication, 11(1), 274-299.